Each state has its own laws addressing intergovernmental purchasing by local government agencies.
Please click a state on the map to display the Intergovernmental Purchasing Statutes by state.
The material provided on this page is for informational and educational purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. It may not contain the most up to date changes in the law. Please consult with your legal counsel for further details on your state’s own laws addressing intergovernmental purchasing.
Article 3: Competitive Bidding on Contracts of Certain State and Local Agencies, etc.
(16) Subject to the limitations in this subdivision, purchases of goods made as a part of the purchasing cooperative sponsored by the National Association of Counties, its successor organization, or any other competitive bid nationwide cooperative purchasing program, or other national or regional governmental cooperative purchasing program. This subdivision shall not apply to goods for which a service or service contract, whether subject to competitive bidding under this article or not, is necessary to utilize the goods. Such purchases may only be made if all of the following occur:
a. The goods being purchased are available as a result of a competitive bid process conducted by a governmental entity and approved by the Alabama Department of Examiners of Public Accounts for each bid.
b. The goods are either not at the time available to counties on the state purchasing program or are available at a price equal to or less than that on the state purchasing program.
c. The purchase is made through a participating Alabama vendor holding an Alabama business license if such a vendor exists.
d. The entity purchasing goods under this subdivision has been notified by the Department of Examiners of Public Accounts that the competitive bid process utilized by the cooperative program offering the goods complies with this subdivision.
This code pertains to the following political subdivisions only:
- State Colleges or Universities under the supervision and control of the State Board of Education
- State Junior Colleges
- State Trade Schools
- County Commissions
- Governing Boards of Instrumentalities of Counties and Municipalities, including Waterworks Boards, Sewer Boards, Gas Boards, and other like Utility Boards and Commissions
Title 36 Public Contracts
Chapter 36.30 State Procurement Code
Chapter 102 Common Service Contracts by Article 9 Intergovernmental Relations
36.30.700: Cooperative purchasing authorized.
Title 11 Counties
Chapter 7 Intergovernmental Operations
Article 3 Joint Exercise of Powers
11-952: Intergovernmental agreements and contracts
19-11-206: Definitions concerning intergovernmental relations as used in this subchapter, unless the context otherwise requires:
1. "State public procurement unit" means the Office of State Procurement and any other procurement agency of this state;.
A. Any county, city, town, state agency, and any other subdivision of the state or public agency thereof,
B. Any fire protection district;
C. Any regional water distribution district;
D. Any rural development authority;
E. Any public authority;
F. Any public educational, health, or other institution;
G. Any nonprofit corporation during such time that it contracts with the Division of Developmental Disabilities Services of the Department of Human Services to provide services to the developmentally disabled, provided the contract exceeds seventy-five thousand dollars ($75,000) per year
H. Any nonprofit corporation providing fire protection services to a rural area or providing drinking water to the public in a rural area;
I. Any nonprofit corporation which contracts with the Department of Human Services, provided that the contract includes provisions for transportation services, and the contract exceeds seventy-five thousand dollars ($75,000) per year; and
J. To the extent not prohibited by law, any other entity which expends public funds for the acquisition or leasing of commodities and services;
3. "Public procurement unit" means either a local public procurement unit or a state public procurement unit;
4. "External procurement activity" means any buying organization not located in this state which, if located in this state, would qualify as a public procurement unit. A. An agency of the federal government is an external procurement activity; and
5. "Cooperative procurement" means procurement conducted by, or on behalf of, more than one (1) public procurement unit or by a public procurement unit with an external procurement activity.
19-11-249: Cooperative purchasing.
Any public procurement unit may either participate in, sponsor, conduct, or administer a cooperative purchasing agreement for the acquisition of any commodities or services with one (1) or more public procurement units or external procurement activities in accordance with an agreement entered into between the participants. Such cooperative purchasing may include, but is not limited to, joint or multiparty contracts between public procurement units and open ended state public procurement unit contracts which are made available to local public procurement units.
California Government Code
Title 1 General
Division 7 Miscellaneous
Chapter 5 Joint Exercise of Powers
Article 1 Joint Powers Agreements
§ 6500 Gov't.
§ 6502 Gov't.
Colorado Revised Statutes
Title 24 Government - State
Article 110 Intergovernmental Relations
24-110-201. Cooperative purchasing authorized.
Chapter 58 Purchases and Printing
Sec. 4a-53 (Formerly Sec. 4-110c). Cooperative Purchasing Plans
Title 7 Municipalities
Chapter 98 Municipal Powers
Sec. 7-148cc: Joint performance of municipal functions.
Sec. 7-187. Definitions.
Title 29 State Government
Part VI Budget, Fiscal, Procurement and Contracting Regulations
Chapter 69. State Procurement
29 Del. C. § 6987: Cooperative Procurement
District of Columbia
District of Columbia Code
Division I Government of District
Title 2 Government Administration
Chapter 3 Procurement
Unit A Procurement Practices for the District Government
Subchapter XI Miscellaneous
§ 2-311.02. Cooperative purchasing agreement.
(a) The Director shall be authorized and encouraged to participate in, sponsor, conduct, or administer cooperative purchasing agreements with any state, county, or municipal jurisdiction for the purpose of procuring supplies and services, which shall include construction services or architectural and engineering services related to construction repairs, upgrades, restoration, alteration, and reconstruction of existing buildings and facilities. Cooperative purchasing agreements entered into by the District government shall be in accordance with, to the extent practicable, all laws, statutes, and regulations of the District government with respect to contracting, and shall not be inconsistent with laws, statutes, and regulations of the United States government that apply specifically to the District.
(b) The District government may not participate in any cooperative purchasing agreement pursuant to subsection (a) of this section that does not mandate minimum minority business participation levels equal to those required by subchapter VIII of Chapter 2 of this title.
(c) Cooperative purchasing agreements may include, but not be limited to, the following:
(1) Agreements for the cooperative purchasing of supplies and services;
(2) Agreements for the sale, purchase, or use of property belonging to either the District or a neighboring jurisdiction;
(3) Agreements for the common use of facilities equipment;
(4) Agreements for automated databases; or
(5) Agreements for construction services or architectural and engineering services related to the repair, upgrade, restoration, alteration and reconstruction of buildings and facilities.
(d) No agency shall enter into or participate in a cooperative purchasing agreement unless that participation is authorized by the Director pursuant to the District Government Procurement Regulations.
|Title XI County Organization and Intergovernmental Relations|
Chapter 163 Intergovernmental Programs
Part I Miscellaneous Programs
163.01 Florida Interlocal Cooperation Act of 1969.
2. It is the purpose of this section to permit local governmental units to make the most efficient use of their powers by enabling them to cooperate with other localities on a basis of mutual advantage and thereby to provide services and facilities in a manner and pursuant to forms of governmental organization that will accord best with geographic, economic, population, and other factors influencing the needs and development of local communities.
3. As used in this section:
a) "Interlocal agreement" means an agreement entered into pursuant to this section.
b) "Public agency" means a political subdivision, agency, or officer of this state or of any state of the United States, including, but not limited to, state government, county, city, school district, single and multipurpose special district, single and multipurpose public authority, metropolitan or consolidated government, an independently elected county officer, any agency of the United States Government, a federally recognized Native American tribe, and any similar entity of any other state of the United States.
c) "State" means a state of the United States.
d) "Person" means:
1. Any natural person;
2. The United States; any state; any municipality, political subdivision, or municipal corporation created by or pursuant to the laws of the United States or any state; or any board, corporation, or other entity or body declared by or pursuant to the laws of the United States or any state to be a department, agency, or instrumentality thereof;
3. Any corporation, not-for-profit corporation, firm, partnership, cooperative association, electric cooperative, or business trust of any nature whatsoever which is organized and existing under the laws of the United States or any state; or
4. Any foreign country; any political subdivision or governmental unit of a foreign country; or any corporation, not-for-profit corporation, firm, partnership, cooperative association, electric cooperative, or business trust of any nature whatsoever which is organized and existing under the laws of a foreign country or of a political subdivision or governmental unit thereof.
5. A public agency of this state may exercise jointly with any other public agency of the state, of any other state, or of the United States Government any power, privilege, or authority which such agencies share in common and which each might exercise separately.
Constitution of the State of Georgia
Article IX Counties & Municipal Corporations
Section III Intergovernmental Relations
Paragraph I: Intergovernmental contracts.
Title 36 Local Government
Provisions Applicable to Counties and Municipal Corporations
Chapter 69A Interlocal Cooperation
|36-69A-4. Joint exercise of powers, privileges, or authority; agreements with public agencies of other states; required information and provisions; limitations on contracts|
Division 1. Government
Title 9 Public Property, Purchasing and Contracting
Chapter 103D Hawaii Public Procurement Code
Part VIII Government Relations and Cooperative Purchasing
§ 103D-801: Definitions
§ 103D-802: Cooperative purchasing authorized
Title 67 State Government and State Affairs
Chapter 23 Miscellaneous Provisions
67-2326: Joint action by public agencies — Purpose.
67-2328: Joint exercise of powers.
b) Any state or public agency may enter into agreements with one another for joint or cooperative action which includes, but is not limited to, joint use, ownership and/or operation agreements pursuant to the provisions of this act. Appropriate action by ordinance, resolution, or otherwise pursuant to law of the governing bodies of these participating public agencies shall be necessary before any such agreement may enter into force.
Chapter 5 General Provisions
Act 220 Intergovernmental Cooperation Act
5 ILCS 220/2
5 ILCS 220/3
Title 36 Local Government
Article 1 General Provisions
Chapter 7 Interlocal Cooperation
Title I State Sovereignty and Management
Subtitle 10. Joint Governmental Activity
Chapter 28E Joint Exercise of Governmental Powers
28E.3: Joint exercise of powers
Chapter 12 Cities and Municipalities
Article 29 Interlocal Cooperation
§ 11-102-1. 12-2901: Purpose of Act.
(a) The term "public agency" shall mean any county, township, city, town, village, school district, library district, road district, drainage or levee district, sewer district, water district, fire district or other municipal corporation, quasi-municipal corporation or political subdivision of this state or of any other state and any agency or instrumentality of this state or any other state or of the United States;
12-2904: Interlocal agreements by public agencies; specifications; approval of attorney general, exceptions.
Title VI Financial Administration
Chapter 45A Kentucky Model Procurement Code
45A.295: Definitions for terms used in KRS 45A.295 to 45A.320.
45A.300: Cooperative purchasing.
(2) Nothing in this code shall limit any public purchasing unit from selling to, acquiring from, or using any property belonging to another public purchasing unit or foreign purchasing activity independent of the requirements of KRS 45A.070 to 45A.180.
(3) Nothing in this code shall limit or restrict any public purchasing unit from entering into an agreement, independent of the requirements of KRS 45A.045(5) and KRS 45A.070 to 45A.165, with any other public purchasing unit or foreign purchasing activity for the cooperative use of supplies or services.
(4) Any public purchasing unit may enter into an agreement for the joint or common use of warehousing facilities or the lease or common use of capital equipment or facilities with any other public purchasing unit or a foreign purchasing activity subject to the terms as may be agreed upon between the parties.
(5) Nothing in this code shall limit or restrict the ability of local school districts to acquire supplies outside of the public purchasing agreements when the supplies and equipment meeting the same specifications as the contract items are available at a lower price elsewhere and the purchase does not exceed two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500).
(6) Nothing in this code shall limit any public purchasing unit from receiving notice of or accepting a price reduction on supplies or equipment when the supplies or equipment are being offered by the vendor with whom a price agreement has been made; the supplies or equipment are being offered in accordance with all terms and conditions that are specified in the price agreement, except those relating to price; and the price reduction is offered to all of the participants in the price agreement. Public purchasing units may accept special price reductions under this subsection even if the reduced price requires the purchase of a specified quantity of units different from the quantity stated in the original price agreement. Price reductions under this subsection shall not be considered to permanently alter the price of the supplies or equipment under the price agreement with the Commonwealth, except where the price reductions are to be made permanent under the express terms of the price agreement and where the purchasing agency which solicited the price agreement determines that the enforcement of those terms serves the best interest of the Commonwealth.
Title 39 Public Finance
Subtitle III. General Laws on State Debt
Chapter 17. Louisiana Procurement Code
Part VII Intergovernmental Relations
39:1701: Definitions of terms used in this Part
(1) "Cooperative purchasing" means procurement conducted by or on behalf of more than one public procurement unit or by a public procurement unit with an external procurement activity or by a private procurement unit.
(2) "External procurement activity" means any buying organization not located in this state which, if located in this state, would qualify as a public procurement unit. An agency of the United States government is an external procurement activity.
(3) "Local public procurement unit" means any parish, city, town, governmental body, and any other subdivision of the state or public agency thereof, public authority, public educational, health, or other institution, and to the extent provided by law, any other entity which expends public funds for the acquisition or leasing of supplies, services, major repairs, and construction, and any nonprofit corporation operating a charitable hospital.
(4) "Private procurement unit" means any independent institution of higher education in this state.
(5) "Public procurement unit" means either a local public procurement unit or a state public procurement unit.
(6) "State public procurement unit" means the central purchasing agency and any other purchasing agency of this state.
39:1702: Cooperative purchasing authorized; participation in Federal General Services Administration vendor list
39:1704. Cooperative use of supplies or services
Article 7.14 (C)
TITLE 38:3383: Cooperative Endeavors
Maine Revised Statutes
Title 30-A Municipalities and Counties
Part 2 Municipalities
Subpart 2: Organization and Interlocal Corporation
30-A M.R.S.A. § 2201: Purpose
30-A M.R.S.A. § 2202: Definitions
As used in this chapter, unless the context otherwise indicates, the following terms have the following meanings.
1. Public agency. "Public agency" means:
A. Any political subdivision of the State, as defined in section 2252, or any adjoining state; or
C. Any agency of State Government or the Federal Government.
30-A M.R.S.A. § 2252: "Political subdivision" defined
30-A M.R.S.A. § 2203: Joint exercise of powers
State Finance and Procurement
Division 2 Procurement
Title 13 Source Selection for Procurement Contracts
Subtitle 1: Methods for Selecting Procurement Sources
§ 13-110 STATE FIN. & PROC: Procurement by intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement.
1) "Governmental entity" means:
i. the federal government or an agency or other instrumentality of the federal government;
ii. another state or an agency or other instrumentality of another state;
iii. a bistate or multistate agency;
iv. a county, municipal corporation, or other political subdivision of the State or of another state, or an agency orother instrumentality of the political subdivision;
v. a bicounty or multicounty agency;
vi. a primary procurement unit; or
vii. an affiliation, alliance, consortium, or group composed solely of governmental entities that is established for purposes of promoting intergovernmental cooperative purchasing.
2) "Intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement" means a contract:
(i) 1. entered into by at least one governmental entity and a person selected in a manner that is consistent with the purposes set forth under § 11-201 of this article;
2. that is available for use by the governmental entity entering the contract and at least one additional governmental entity which may, but need not be, an original party to the contract; and
3. that is intended to promote efficiency and savings that can result from intergovernmental cooperative purchasing; or
(ii) between a primary procurement unit and a person who, at the time the intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement is awarded, has a contract with the federal government or an agency or other instrumentality of the federal government, and who agrees to provide the unit with identical prices, terms, and conditions as stipulated in the federal contract.
(b) Participation of primary procurement unit.
1) Subject to § 12-107 of this article and paragraph (3) of this subsection, whenever a primary procurement unit procurement officer determines that it is in the best interest of the State to sponsor or participate in an intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement, with the approval of the unit head and subject to any other approval required by law, the primary procurement unit may become a party to or participate under the agreement.
2) A determination under this subsection shall be in writing and include a statement that the intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement:
(i) will provide cost benefits to the State, promote administrative efficiencies, or promote intergovernmental cooperation; and
(ii) is not intended to evade the purposes of this Division II.
3) A primary procurement unit may not participate under a federal contract if the State’s participation is valued at less than $250,000.
(c) Sponsorship of intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement; award of contract.
1) If a primary procurement unit sponsors an intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement:
i. the contract shall be awarded in the same manner as the contract would be awarded under this Division II if the unit was the sole participant under the contract; and
ii. all procedures under this Division II, including procedures governing contract claims and protests, shall apply.
2) A political subdivision of the State may participate under any intergovernmental cooperative purchasing agreement sponsored by a primary procurement unit in a manner consistent with the terms of the agreement.
Part I. Administration of the Government
Title III Laws Relating to State Officers
Chapter 30B. Uniform Procurement Act
§ 2. Definitions
§ 22 Cooperative Purchasing Agreements
Michigan Compiled Laws
Chapter 124 – Municipalities
124.504: Joint exercise of powers.
Chapter 471 Municipal Rights, Powers, Duties
471.59: Joint exercise of powers.
Mississippi Code of 1972
Title 31 Public Business, Bonds and Obligations
Chapter 7 Public Purchases
§ 31-7-1: Definitions.
§ 31-7-13: Bid requirements and exceptions; public auctions.
Title VI County, Township & Political Subdivision Government
Chapter 70 Powers of Political Subdivisions to Cooperate or Contract with Governmental Units
70.220: Political subdivisions may cooperate with each other, with other states, the United States or private persons
Title 18 Public Contracts
Chapter 4 Montana Procurement Act
Part 4 Cooperative Purchasing
18-4-124. Local government adoption of procurement provisions
18-4-402. Cooperative purchasing authorized
Chapter 13 Cities, Counties, and Political Subdivisions
13-2503. Terms, defined.
13-2505. Joint exercise of powers.
Title 27 – Public Property and Purchasing
Chapter 232 Purchasing: Local Governments
NRS 332.015 "Local government" defined
NRS 332.195 Joinder or mutual use of contracts by local governments
NRS 332.115 Contracts not adapted to award by competitive bidding; purchase of equipment by local law enforcement agency or local fire department; purchase of goods commonly used by hospital
Title III Towns, Cities, Village Districts and Unincorporated Places
Chapter 53-A Agreements Between Government Units
53-A:2 Public Agency Defined
53-A:3 Joint Exercise of Powers.
Chapter 11 Intergovernmental Agreements and Authorities
Article 1 Joint Powers Authority
11-1-3. Authority to enter into agreements; approval of the secretary of finance and administration required
13-1-135. Cooperative procurement authorized
General Municipal Law
Article 5A (Public Contracts)
Chapter 160A. Cities and Towns
ARTICLE 20 Interlocal Cooperation
Part 1 Joint Exercise of Powers
160A-461. Interlocal cooperation authorized
North Carolina Schools
143-129. Procedure for letting of public contracts
Title 54 State Government
Chapter 54-40 Joint Exercise of Governmental Powers
54-40.3-01. Joint powers agreements - General authority
State of Ohio Statutes
Ohio Revised Rule
Chapter 9: Miscellaneous
§ 9.48 Joint Purchasing Programs
(A) As used in this section, “political subdivision” has the same meaning as in section 2744.01 of the Revised Code and includes a county hospital as defined in section 339.01 of the Revised Code.
Title 74 State Government
Chapter 31 Interlocal Cooperation Act
§ 74-1001. Purpose
§ 74-1003. Definitions.
§ 74-1004. Agreements Authorized
Chapter 279A Public Contracting
279A.205 Cooperative procurements authorized
279A.220 Interstate cooperative procurements
279A.200 Definitions for ORS 279A.200 to 279A.225
Title 62 Procurement (Pa.C.S.A.)
Part I Commonwealth Procurement Code
Chapter 19 Intergovernmental Relations
62 Pa.C.S.A. § 1901. Definitions
62 Pa.C.S.A. § 1902. Cooperative purchasing authorized
Rhode Island General Laws
Title 45 Towns and Cities
Chapter 40.1 Interlocal Contracting and Joint Enterprises
§ 45-40.1-1 Legislative purpose
§ 45-40.1-3 "Public agency" defined
§ 45-40.1-4 Interlocal agreements
Title 11 Public Finance
Chapter 35 South Carolina Consolidated Procurement Code
Article 19 Intergovernmental Relations
§ 11-35-4610. Definitions of terms used in this article
§ 11-35-4810. Cooperative purchasing authorized
Title 1 Chapter 1-24
Title 12 Public Property, Printing and Contracts
Chapter 9 Interlocal Cooperation
12-9-104. Interlocal agreements
Title 7. Intergovernmental Relations
Chapter 791 Interlocal Cooperation Contracts
Subchapter C. Specific Interlocal Contracting Authority
§ 791.001 GOV'T. Purpose
§ 791.003 GOV'T. Definitions
§ 791.025 GOV'T. Contracts for Purchases
Title 11 Cities, Counties, and Local Taxing Units
Chapter 13 Interlocal Cooperation Act
11-13-2. Purpose of act
11-13-4. Joint exercise of powers, privileges, or authority by public agencies authorized
Title Twenty-Four Municipal and County Government
Part 2. Municipalities
Chapter 121 Intermunicipal Cooperation & Services
Subchapter 4 Interlocal Contracts
1 V.S.A. § 126. Municipality
24 V.S.A. § 4901. Authorization
Title 2.2 Administration of Government
Subtitle II Administration of State Government
Part B. Transaction of Public Business
Chapter 43 Virginia Public Procurement Act
Article 2 Contract Formation and Administration
§ 2.2-4304. Cooperative procurement
Revised Code of Washington
Title 39 RCW Public Contracts & Indebtedness
Chapter 39.34 RCW Interlocal Cooperation Act
RCW 39.34.020 Definitions
RCW 39.34.030 and 1992 c 161 s 4 are each amended to read as follows:
West Virginia Code
Chapter 8 Municipal Corporations
Article 23 Intergovernmental Relations
Contracting and Joint Enterprises
Part II Intergovernmental Agreements and Contracts
§ 8-23-2. Definitions
§ 8-23-3. Intergovernmental agreements generally
Chapter 66 General Municipality Law
Subchapter III Intergovernmental Cooperation
66.0303 Municipal interstate cooperation
66.0301 Intergovernmental cooperation
Title 16 City, County, State and Local Powers
Chapter 1 Intergovernmental Cooperation
Article 1 In General
16-1-101. Authority to cooperate